A domain name is a string of numbers and letters that can be used to identify a specific device on the Internet. Each device on the Internet needs a unique IP address so that traffic can be routed to that device. DNS translates human queries into numbers that each device can understand. IP addresses are either IPv4 or IPv6. IPv4 numbers are typically 32-bit integers, expressed in decimal notation.
ICANN’s new security features impacted the cryptographic keys used in the DNSSEC protocol, also known as root zone key signing. These changes were necessary because networks and the Internet of Things are expanding and changing at an incredible rate. DNS over HTTPS aims to improve privacy and security by making the process more secure. It will be useful to users as it will prevent third-party companies and governments from tracking DNS traffic.
Apart from web servers, DNS also serves a variety of other purposes. An MX record, for example, helps mail transfer agents (MTAs) find the best mail server for a domain. It provides an additional layer of load distribution and fault tolerance. Another major use for DNS is efficient storage of the IP addresses of blacklisted email hosts. Most common practice involves placing the subject host’s IP address in a sub-domain of a higher-level domain name.
The domain name system is a decentralized and hierarchical naming system for computers on the Internet. It works much like a phone book – a domain name can be used to locate an individual. In the same way, DNS servers translate requests for specific domains to IP addresses and direct them to a website or service. DNS has become an integral part of the Internet since 1985, making it a critical component of the Web.
There are two types of DNS servers. These servers manage IP addresses and server names. When a query is made, it starts with the root server. The root server will respond with an IP address. It’s the authoritative name server and will resolve the query. After a DNS query, the resolver will then ask other DNS servers for the address of the requested host. In the end, the authoritative name server will return an IP address.